Wuli Jia, Fangfang Lan, Xin Zhao, Zhong-Lin Lu, Chang-Bing Huang, Wuxiao Zhao, and Min Li


Intensive monocular perceptual learning can improve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and vernier acuity in the amblyopic eye in adults with amblyopia. It is however not clear how much monocular training can enhance binocular visual functions. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate effects of monocular training on a variety of binocular functions. Nineteen anisometropic amblyopes (18.5 ± 1.26 yrs, mean ± s.e.) were trained in a grating contrast detection task near each individual’s cutoff spatial frequency for 6–10 days (630 trials/day). Visual acuity, stereoacuity, monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity functions (CSF), binocular phase combination and binocular rivalry were tested before and after training. Although monocular training can improve visual acuity and contrast sensitivity and eye dominance of the amblyopic eye, the magnitudes of improvements did not correlate with each other; the impact of monocular training on binocular phase combination was not significant. The results strongly suggest that structured monocular and binocular training is needed to fully recover deficient visual functions in anisometropic amblyopia.

Results show that both methods are highly correlated; using both common and novel measures for test-retest repeatability, however, the quick CSF delivers more precision with testing times of under three minutes. Further analyses show how a population prior can improve convergence rate of the quick CSF, and how the multi-dimensional output of the quick CSF can provide greater precision than scalar outcome measures.